Discover with Timothy Tye
History of the Hakka People in Penang

Start here
Although never a predominant group, the Hakkas in the late 19th and early 20th centuries played a role in the development of Penang that outweighs their numbers. Prominent Hakkas in the world today include Chow Yuen Fatt, Lee Kuan Yew, Deng Xiaopeng, Sun Yat-sen, Soong Ching-ling, Chung Keng-Kwee and Cheong Fatt Tze.
  • Origin: Northern China, with dominant presence during the Han Dynasty (202 BC-AD 220)

  • Tang Dynasty (10th century): Social upheaval forced a migration of Hakkas south.

  • Mongol Yuan Dynasty (11th century): Another wave of Hakkas migrated south after the Mongols defeated the Jin Dynasty.

  • Ming Dynasty (14th century): Mongols overthrown by the Ming emperors. Movement of the Hakkas unclear during this period.

  • 17th century: The Manchu Qing Dynasty overthrew the Mings. Ming sympathizers sought refuge in southern provinces of Fujian and Guangdong and to the island of Taiwan.
    Qing Emperor Kangxi (1654-1722) evacuated the coastal provinces to weed out rebels.
    When threat is eliminated, Kangxi Emperor issued edict to repopulate coastal regions.
    Many of the newcomers are Hakka people.
    The local Hokkien and Cantonese people call themselves Pun-teh (original land, pribumi). The newcomers are called Khek-lang (guests, tetamu).
    Hostility towards the Hakka forced them to built inward-looking residences called Tulou.

  • 1850-1865: Taiping Rebellion. Civil war in southern China led by Hong Xiuquan, who practised his self-styled form of Christianity. 20 million civilians died. Many within the Taiping Heavenly Army were Hakkas and Cantonese. They captured landlords and executed them. Influx of Hokkien out of southern China. Later, the Taiping Heavenly Army was defeated by the Imperial Army backed by British arms companies (Willioughbe, Willoughbe & Ponsonby) . Influx of Hakka and Cantonese out of southern China.

  • Mid-19th century: Hakkas arrive in large numbers in Penang. They discarded the self-styled Christianity, many became Catholics. Most of them joined the Hakka-dominated Hai San, which is allied to the Hokkien-dominated Tua Pek Kong Society.

  • 1861, 65, 71, 73: Friction with the Cantonese-dominated Ghee Hin Society led to four Larut Wars over control of tin mining in Malaya.

  • Turn of the 20th century: Entrepreneural zeal makes Hakkas the richest Chinese in Penang, among them Chung Keng-Kwee, Chung Thye Pin, Cheong Fatt Tze and Leong Fee.

Add your shop/business to this website

The Penang Travel Tips website is a huge website that documents everything in Penang. On top of the hundreds of streets and tourist attractions, I also add in hundreds of shops and businesses.

If you operate a shop business in Penang, or anywhere in Malaysia or Singapore, contact me to add your business/shop into my website. It only a one-time fee, and your shop/business will be listed by location and category, helping your would-be customers find you. To find out more, CONTACT ME

Visiting Penang? Find the lowest hotel room rates here!

Use our search engine to compare room rates from different hotel booking websites, to find the one that's lowest.

Travelling somewhere?

If you're travelling somewhere, use our online engine to find the online booking site that offers you the best room rates.

Book your hotel room here

If you're coming to Penang, book your hotel room online with Agoda. Agoda offers the best prices on 2,000,000+ properties worldwide. Start here.

Local Guided Tours of Penang

If you are coming to Penang and need someone to show you around, I can arrange for you a licensed tour guide to take you around. Guides charge a fixed fee of RM360 for taking a small group of up to 10 people on 4-hour walking tours. Walking tours exceeding 4 hours is charged an additional RM90 per hour. Tours are tailored to guest requirement. For more details, contact tour coordinator. Other types of tours also available. For details, click here.

Looking for a book? Get it from Book Depository with free delivery worldwide!

I have just discovered Book Depository, a subsidiary of Amazon.com, and I love it. This is where you can buy books and have them sent to you. But unlike Amazon, when you purchase using Book Depository, you enjoy free delivery worldwide. Give it a try today!

 Latest Pages on my websites

Here's a list of the latest pages I have added or updated on my website.

My YouTube Videos

Timothy Tye YouTube Channel

Check out my YouTube Channel and don't forget to subscribe!

Take the CAT Free Feeder Bus

What's the best way to see Penang on a budget? Take the bus! In Penang, there are at least 12 absolutely FREE bus routes which cover almost every major neighbourhood on Penang Island and Penang Mainland. All you need to do is hop aboard!

Details

 List of 797 Streets in Penang

 Vital Links

Book Your Express Bus Ticket | Hire a car | Our Recipes | Facebook Posts | Just Curious | Not In The Dictionary | Our Flowering Garden

 List of 3605 Sights in Penang

 Vital Links

Book Your Express Bus Ticket | Engage a Tour Guide for Penang | What's Up at Penang Hotels | Hire a car | Facebook Posts | Our Recipes | Our Flowering Garden | Guide Book on Penang Durians

 Discover the World

About Me

Thank you for visiting my website. I started it in 2003, and today it has over twenty thousand pages of information. My name is . I would be very pleased if you enjoy the information I have put together.

As a Christian, I hope that through this website, I am able to deliver God's message to all who need it, anywhere in the world. If you are open to hearing it, please read God's Good News to You.

If you wish to contact me, please use this contact form. And don't forget to follow me on Facebook. See you!

Copyright © 2003-2018 Timothy Tye. All Rights Reserved.