Before you begin your journey into learning Penang Hokkien, you should first acquaint yourself to the spelling and pronunciation of Penang Hokkien. Although Penang Hokkien has existed for some three hundred years as a largely oral language, through this online course, a romanisation system has been created to progress Penang Hokkien into a written language. This writing system is being encouraged to everyone who is learning Penang Hokkien. The follow lessons provides you the details of the spelling and pronunciation.
- International Phonetic Alphabet (Pronunciation Guide)
List of IPA symbols used that the expected spelling that they represent in Penang Hokkien.
- Spelling Guide (The TJ System of Romanisation)
Similar to the page on IPA, this page shows example of words spelled in Penang Hokkien based on the IPA symbols used.
- Grammatical Terminology
The terms used to explain the grammar of Penang Hokkien.
- Reading Penang Hokkien
Information on the writing system used for teaching Penang Hokkien.
- Intonation of Penang Hokkien
Introduction to the four tones of Penang Hokkien.
- Getting used to Penang Hokkien tones
For the benefit of people who already speak Penang Hokkien but have difficulty mastering the tones, I create this page to provide additional examples.
- Penang Hokkien Phonetic Table
This is a table showing how each syllable is pronounced in the four tones.
- Penang Hokkien Tone Sandhi
Get to know the tone sandhi of Penang Hokkien.
- Tone Sandhi in English
An observation of how words in English also change tones, just like in Penang Hokkien.
- Tone 33 Syllables
Syllables in Penang Hokkien with a unique characteristic.
- Tone Sandhi affecting Subjects
Learn when the subject is sandhied and when it is not.
- Spelling the Nasal Sound
Learn how nasalized words are spelled in Penang Hokkien.
- Vowels and Digraphs in Penang Hokkien
Insight into the spelling system and the used of vowels and digraphs for writing words in the language.
- "oh" and "or" in Penang Hokkien
- "c" and "ch" in Penang Hokkien
- The pseudo-fricative "h" in Penang Hokkien
- Canonical Spelling of Penang Hokkien
Insight into the expected spelling for words in the language.
- Attaining Proficiency in written Penang Hokkien
- Pronouncing People's Names in Penang Hokkien
Comparison with other Hokkien romanization systems
The Penang Hokkien lessons on this website uses the TJ Romanisation System, created specially to help people learn the language while at the same time preserving the spelling of common words.
- Comparing consonants
- Comparing tones
Now you can use the most user-friendly tool on the web to learn Penang Hokkien. It helps you to listen, understand and memorise. Go to Memrise
, and learn Penang Hokkien at your own pace.
Selected Books related to the Hokkien Language
- Taiwan Grammar: A Concise Reference
- Koxinga of Taiwan
- History of the Thai Chinese
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